Lady Sansa never married Ramsay Bolton, it was her Hand Maiden from Winterfell passed off as Ayra Stark
Jamie Lannister never went to Dorne. He went on the mission with Lady Brienne to find Sansa and met Lady Stoneheart.
Lady Stoneheart was Caitlyn Stark who was brought back to life by Beric Dondarrion (Lightning Lord)
Tyrion, so far in the books has not met Daenerys.
There are a few other storylines that I believe have been cut but it's further into the books that the seasons so don't want to spoil it too much incase they don't cut them.
Yes there is a big possibility that the book won't be out before the next seasons. There are two books that are due to come out and George R R Martin takes a long time to write the books. I think that's why they are starting to change it in the show so it doesn't spoil it for the book readers.
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